The Cannabis Horticultural Association is pleased to announce a new perk to joining the CHA, Seeds!
All new members in the Silver, Gold, and Platinum tiers will receive an exclusive pack of non-feminized seeds from a specialty breeding project for 2021 that is selecting for a diverse array of terpenoids and concentrate production. A Slapz (Runtz x Grease Monkey) male plant was chosen and bred into a few select females of Gelonade, White Runtz, and Blood Orange Kush. Members can contact us directly for more info after signing up and to choose varieties and inquire if any new genetics are available. ***Seeds are for novelty use only and are collectors items.
When most people think about fertilizing plants, they think about the major nutrients like nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium. And there are quite a few other micronutrients that all play important roles in plant health, but arguably there is no other micro-nutrient as important as silicon for optimizing plant health. Silicon plays an integral role in plant health by interacting with several key components of plant stress signaling systems leading to induced resistance. The terminology is confusing because there are differences between silicon, silica, silicic acid and silicate. Sometimes they’re used interchangeably by the fertilizer industry but these terms mean very different things. So, here are the definitions of some common terms involved when talking about silicon in plants.
Silicon: a tetravalent nonmetallic element that occurs combined as the most abundant element next to oxygen in the earth’s crust. It is an element with the symbol Si and atomic number 14. The elemental form itself is unassimilable to plants.
Silica: another name for silicon dioxide (SiO₂); found in the mineral quartz and also a major component of sand. Sometimes you will find products that contain micronized silicon dioxide to be amended in or there is even liquid silicon dioxide as well.
Silicates: compounds containing silicon-oxygen tetrahedrons (SiO4)4-that are used as fertilizers like calcium silicate, potassium silicate, sodium silicate and combinations of diatomaceous earth with minerals.
Silicic Acid: any of various weakly acid substances obtained as gelatinous masses by treating silicates with acids. It is a compound of silicon, oxygen, and hydrogen, regarded as the parent substance from which is derived a large family—the silicates—of minerals, salts, and esters. The only form of silicon which is available for entry or uptake into a plant is silicic acid, Si(OH)4
Monosilicic Acid (MSA): Synonym: orthosilicic acid (OSA). MSA or Si(OH)4 is the simplest form of soluble silicic acid. MSA is found universally in seawater, river water and soils at a concentration of a few ppm. Although MSA is in dynamic equilibrium with disilicic acid, it is considered the only bioavailable form of silicon.
What’s the Difference?
Because most of the silicon in the plant’s crust is held in forms plants cannot take up. These include silicon dioxide (silica) and various silicate minerals. While plants can’t take up silica, they can take up another form of silicon —monosilicic/orthosilicic acid. Bacteria can convert other silicon compounds into monosilicic acid. However, this process takes weeks or months. By the time silicon is in a plant available form, the plant might be too far along in it growth cycle for the silicon to be of much value. Therefore, growers often apply silicon in the form of monosilicic acid. https://www.globalgarden.co/knowledge/silicic-acid/
SILICIC ACID VS. POTASSIUM SILICATE
Potassium silicate (K2SiO3) is a salt of silicic acid (H4SiO4).
As mentioned above, silicates are not available to plants. So, plants cannot take up or use potassium silicate. First, bacteria must convert it to monosilicic acid.
Therefore, applying potassium silicate does not have the same effects as applying monosilicic acid. Depending on the level of nutrient cyclying and silica solubilizing bacteria present in the soil or on the leaf surface (foliar application), your plants will not be able to uptake potassium silicate for potentially weeks, it just depends on a variety of biotic and abiotic factors. https://www.globalgarden.co/knowledge/silicic-acid/
Role of Silicon in Plant Health
Silicon promotes plant growth by increasing the growth of cells which leads to faster growth of the roots stems and shoots. A few studies have shown that the application of silicon yields plants with taller and thicker stems. Silicon also helps protect plants from harmful fungi.
Eventually, silicic acid molecules polymerize into insoluble silica, which is deposited in plant tissues, first in the abaxial (lower) epidermis and then, as the plant grows, in the epidermis. It then condenses into particles of hard, polymerized silica gel, also known as phytoliths. It is this silica that imparts silicon’s benefits to plants by strengthening plant tissues and structures.https://www.emeraldharvest.co/wp-content/uploads/WP_Inside_Silicon_Supplements_DOWNLOAD.pdf
Primary Effects on Plant Growth
Mono-silicic acid has three primary effects on plants:
Mechanical – Builds structure and resistance to stress Deposits silicon directly into the outer layer of the cell creating a rigid barrier and a more solid structure.
Nutritional – Increased and more balanced uptake of nutrients Pressurizes the plant sap to allow a better and more even flow of nutrients throughout the plant circulatory system.
Improves Resistance to Fungal and Bacterial Pathogens
Although it’s not fully known how, silicon helps protect plants against harmful fungi. Some of these fungi include fusarium wilt and powdery mildew. Scientists think one way this element protects plants is by stimulating plant defenses. When you add silicon to your plants, they can better recognize diseases and begin to fight back LINK
Natural Sources of Silicon
So now that we know a little more about the element silicon and its role in plant health, let’s examine where we can find natural source of it.
Horsetail The plant horsetail has found extensive application as a source of silica, The results for the silicon concentration in horsetail reached from 2.64% to 4.80% of the dry matter. The lowest amount of silicon was in the range between 1.52% and 2.51%. https://www.scirp.org/pdf/fns_2013050814523966.pdf
Here is a quick recipe from No Dig Garden for a horsetail extract to apply as a drench or foliar for your plants,
•2 cups fresh horsetail or 1 cup dried
•10 cups water
•Bring to the boil, reduce the heat and simmer for 30 minutes with the lid on. Leave to cool overnight – you may want to pop it outside as it isn’t the nicest of smells and can make the kitchen smell a bit peculiar, not quite what you need first thing in the morning!
•Strain through a sieve or colander lined with muslin and pour into labelled bottles. Store in a cool place for about a month. Pour any leftover potion into a compost heap.
•To use as a foliar spray or soil feed, dilute 1 part horsetail ‘tea’ to 4 parts water.
Here is a recipe for a smaller quantity which can be increased as you wish.
2 cups fresh horsetail or 1 cup dried
10 cups water
Bring to the boil, reduce the heat and simmer for 30 minutes with the lid on. Leave to cool overnight – you may want to pop it outside as it isn’t the nicest of smells and can make the kitchen smell a bit peculiar, not quite what you need first thing in the morning!
Strain through a sieve or colander lined with muslin and pour into labelled bottles. Store in a cool place for about a month. Pour any leftover potion into a compost heap.
To use as a foliar spray or soil feed, dilute 1 part horsetail ‘tea’ to 4 parts water.
In summation, Silicon has been shown to elicit these types of effects on plants
Have stronger and thicker branches by depositing silicon directly into the outer layer of the cell.
Carry sturdier and heavier fruits with higher nutritional value and a longer shelf-life.
Silicon induced thermotolerance – Improves plants tolerance to heat extremes.
Are more resistant to stress caused by high concentrations of salts in the substrate (high EC).
Alleviates abiotic and biotic stresses, and increases the resistance of plants to pathogenic fungi.
“The whole supply chain is really a delicate balance. If you can figure out how to rely on local supply chains and create partnerships with local farms and have things coming in locally where you know they are going to be present, I think it’s a much more sustainable picture long-term.” -Russell Pace, CHA
Future Cannabis Project (FCP) focuses on cannabis cultivation, breeding, extraction, education, advocacy, policy, health, science, and business. On April 22, 2021, Russell Pace, the founder and president of the Cannabis Horticultural Association (CHA), was the featured guest on the FCP Livestream.
The conversation focused on living soils, beneficial insects, breeding projects, intercropping, and many other aspects of horticultural science.
Listed below is a summary of some of the changes from the IFR to the Final Rule that have been already identified: The Final Rule still insists that only DEA-certified laboratories test material, but it delays enforcement of this provision until 12/31/22.
The negligence standard has been increased from 0.5% THC to 1.0% THC, a helpful development to protect farmers’ economic interests.
The sampling window has been extended from 15 to 30 days of anticipated harvest, a welcome relief to help avoid bottlenecking in testing procedures.
Instead of rigid requirements for sampling being mandated from the federal level, the Final Rule establishes “performance-based” sampling requirements, giving states the flexibility to achieve performance objectives, such as a reliability of 95%.
The Final Rule continues to require pre-harvest samples to be taken from the flower material – not the whole plant as many requested — but it provides some relief by requiring the samples to be taken from 5 to 8 inches from the main stem, terminal bud, or central cola of the flowering top.
The USDA retains its requirement for testing total THC, instead of limiting the testing to Delta-9 THC as requested by some in the industry.
The more flexible disposal options that the USDA proposed last year – including on-farm or at-production disposal flexibility – have been made permanent.
In 2019, the Cannabis Horticultural Association (CHA) embarked on a small research project with Matthew Gates to investigate the use of explosive ember pepper plants in banker plant systems for cannabis. The link to the research information as well a tips on growing and purchasing the peppers is here: EXPLOSIVE EMBER PEPPER PLANTS
Tad Hussey, owner of KIS Organics and host of the Cannabis Cultivation and Science Podcast, speakes with Dr. J.P. Michaud, an insect ecologist specializing in biological control and other aspects of crop protection entomology.
Dr. Michaud has been studying ladybugs and their ecology for decades. We know that ladybugs are amazing insects and wonderful aphid predators. However, as Dr. Michaud explains on the podcast, there are a ton of reasons why you should never buy them and why they shouldn’t even be legal to sell.
Meysam Taghinasab and Suha Jabaji * Plant Science Department, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, MacDonald Campus of McGill University, QC H9X 3V9, Canada; Received: 13 January 2020; Accepted: 28 February 2020; Published: 2 March 2020
This is a very interesting article examines cannabis microbiota studies and the effects of endophytes on the elicitation of secondary metabolite production in cannabis plants. The review aims to shed light on the importance of the cannabis microbiome and how cannabinoid compound concentrations can be stimulated through symbiotic and/or mutualistic relationships with endophytes.
This is a very interesting research article that covers the different pathogens affecting both the root and shoot growth of Cannabis sativa L. Inoculation experiments were conducted on developing buds and the roots of Cannabis sativa to determine the extent of disease development caused by pathogenic fungi. LINK BELOW